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About Colors...

Color
Color or colour, derives from the spectrum of light (distribution of light power versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors. Color categories and physical specifications of color are also associated with objects, materials, light sources, etc., based on their physical properties such as light absorption, reflection, or emission spectra. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by their coordinates.
Because perception of color systems from the varying spectral sensitivity of different types of cone cells in the retina to different parts of the spectrum, colors may be defined and quantified by the degree to which they stimulate these cells. These physical or physiological quantifications of color, however, do not fully explain the psychophysical perception of color appearance.
The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, chromatography, colorimetry, or simply color science. It includes the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, and the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (that is, what we commonly refer to simply as light).
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Color Theory
In the visual arts, color theory is a practical guidance to color mixing and the visual impacts of specific color combination. There are also definitions (or categories) of colors based on the color wheel: primary color, secondary color and tertiary color. Although color theory principles first appeared in the writings of Leone Battista Alberti (c.1435) and the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci (c.1490), a tradition of "color theory" began in the 18th century, initially within a partisan controversy around Isaac Newton's theory of color (Optics, 1704) and the nature of so-called primary colors. From there it developed as an independent artistic tradition with only superficial reference to colorimetry and vision science.
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Colors displayed on a computer monitor are called additive colors. They are created differently than printed or pigment colors.

Pigment Color - (paint) reflected light
Pigment color is created when a pigment absorb certain light wavelengths and reflects others. For example, a blue shirt absorbs all wavelengths except blue, which is reflected. The color wheel based on the three primary colors: red, yellow and blue, was developed in 1666 by Sir Isaac Newton.

Primary pigment colors - red, yellow and blue are the primary colors. All other colors are derived from these three hues.
Secondary pigment colors - green, orange and purple are created by mixing the primary colors.
Tertiary colors - yellow-orange, red-orange, red-purple, blue-purple, blue-green and yellow-green are the colors created by mixing the secondary colors.
Additive Color - (computer monitor, television, theater lighting) direct light.
A computer monitor uses three phosphors that appear as red, green, and blue when activated. Other colors are made by combining different intensities of these three colors.

Primary additive colors - red green and blue (RGB) are the primary colors. They can not be created by any combination of other colors.
Secondary additive colors - The secondary colors are cyan, magenta and yellow.
Printing is based on CMYK color - the secondary colors of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (K)
Complementary colors - opposite colors on the color wheel (pigment color example: red-green) create a sense of excitement or disharmony.
Analogous colors - 'neighboring' colors on the color wheel (pigment color example: red-orange) create a sense of harmony.
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